2017/05/29

29. Selected readings on World Development:. Education and Life Expectancy in Africa 1980-2010


Map of Africa with by United Nations regional classification. Retrieved 17-05-29.

Source: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81frica
·                   Africa map regions.svg: LukeSurl (talk · contribs)

·                    derivative work: Rowanwindwhistler (talk)


Guisan, M.C., Exposito, P. (2016). 
"Life Expectancy, Education and Development in  African Countries 1980-2014: Improvements and International Comparisons"

Life expectancy has increased in the majority of African countries for the period 1980-2014, with an average increase slightly higher than that of World average for that period. Due to the low starting values of year 1960, and to the slow increase of the period 1960-1980, many Sub-Saharan countries presented, in year 2014, low values of Life Expectancy in comparison with World average: 59 years in Sub-Saharan Africa and 71 as World average. Northern Africa has experienced a very positive evolution reaching World average in year 2014. 

    This article present some interesting econometric models to analyze the positive impact of education and development in the evolution of life expectancy of African countries, having into account that there are also other factors related with geography, social features, health assistance, sanitation infrastructures and other factors that also explain differences among countries. The estimated models present some specific and significant effects in several countries.

     We include an analysis of several causes of death, with adjusted rates particularly high in many Sub-Saharan countries, in comparison with the World average of the Age Specific Death Rate (ASDR). 

    Finally we call to support the initiatives for a kind of Marshall Plan for Africa, as those suggested many years ago by Angelopoulos and Klein and currently from some from European Union countries or other areas. The article concludes insisting on the main factors that might help to improve development, life expectancy and quality of life in Africa, and calling to foster international initiatives of cooperation in this regard.

The article includes the following tables of data:
Table 1.  Life Expectancy (Lex), Production per head and Education (Tyr) in 30 African countries, 1980-2014

Table 2. Life Expectancy (Lex), by gender, at birth 1960-2014 in  7 World areas

In this table appears the evolution of Life Expectancy, of Sub-Saharan Africa, and in other areas,  in comparison with World average for the period 1960-2014. There was 12 points of difference, between Sub-Saharan and World, both in year 1960 and 2014. There was an increase of 19 years of Life Expectancy, both at World level and in Sub-Saharan Africa for that period. Life expectancy increased from 52 years to 71 for World average during the period 1960-2014. In Sub-Saharan Africa Life expectancy increased from an average of 40 years to 59 years, in the period 1960-2014. 


                                                       Source: Elaborated from World Bank (2016)

Table 3. Annual death rates per 100 thousand people in 7 World areas: Crude Death Rates (CDR) and Specific (ASDR).

In this table appears the evolution of CDR and ASDR of Sub-Saharan Africa, and of other areas, Elaborated from WHO(2016). Major Areas accordingly to World Bank (WB) classification. CDR=Crude Death Rates (affected by age composition) and ASDR=Age Specific Death Rates (not affected by age composition). The anuual death rate, adjusted for age composition, in Sub-Saharan Africa in year 2015 was almost twice the World average, what means that there is much to do regarding prevention and health assistance in order to diminish annual deaths rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Table 4.Adjusted Rates of Death (ASDR) in year 2015: Comparison of Sub-Saharan Africa and World for 43 causes of death.

Table 5. Manufacturing (QMH), Investment (IH), Savings (SH) and Economic Development    in African areas and international comparisons2000-2010


Finally we insist on the great importance of fostering economic development in African areas and countries in order to solve many of the problems of health, in order to improve not only economic conditions but also education, health and quality of life.

International cooperation, helping to improve quality of life, is working well in many cases and it should be fostered in this regard.
                     

      





2017/04/08

28. Global Selection. Transfer Global Architecture Platform: Monograph 03 Mountain. Himalaya (China), Jordan, Bregaglia Valley Canton Grisons (Switzerland), Yucatan Monte Alban (Mexico), Andes (Quito, Ecuador)

#TRANSFER #NewMonograph #Mountain
We are very happy to share with you the launch of the new TRANSFER Winter Monograph MOUNTAIN, with contributions from ZAO/standardarchitecture, Armando Ruinelli, Felipe Correa and many others. We hope you enjoy it! 

http://www.transfer-arch.com/monograph/mountain/


Links to interesting photographs and articles by prestigious architects and other experts:

Transfer Global Architecture Platform. Monograph 03. Mountain.

Editorial by Josep Lluis Mateo
Posted 24.Feb.2016 548 views 

Himalaya. China. Author: Zhang Ke
Mirui Road is a tourist road that meets Highway 318, which connects Tibet and Sichuan Province.

Architecture, Topography and Environment in Jordan. Author: Ammar Khammash
Posted 16.Dec.2016 445 views

Architecture in the Bregaglia Valley. Canton of Grisons, Switzerland. Armando Ruinelli


Idea On mountains by Michael Jakob
Posted 15.Sep.2016 166 views


Found Paper Platforms and Plateaus by Jørn Utzon
Yucatán, Monte Albán: México
Posted 15.Sep.2016 261 views 

Report A Line in the Andes by Felipe Correa (New York, USA)
 Posted  21.Dec.2016 371 views

Redescription Giacometti’s Atelier in Stampa by Beat Stutzer & David Wille
San Juan House by José María Sáez
http://www.transfer-arch.com/works/san-juan-house/Posted 23.Dec.2016 204 views 


ABOUT TRANSFER

TRANSFER Global Architecture Platform, is a new independent digital editorial project based on the production and transmission of original architectural knowledge with the aim of connecting contemporary ideas and practices to broad the global culture of architecture.



Based in Zurich, TRANSFER is edited by a team with extensive experience in research and architectural edition, and relies on an outstanding network of collaborators worldwide.
Editor: Josep Lluís Mateo .Professor Dr. em. Architecture and Design, ETH Zürich. 
Managing Editor: Isabel Concheiro Dipl. Arch. ETSAB  SIA Scientific assistant ETHZ-EPFL (08-14)
More information at: http://www.transfer-arch.com/about/
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS "MONOGRAPH 03. MOUNTAIN",  AT THE TRANSFER WEBSITE AND AT PINTEREST:

http://www.transfer-arch.com/monograph/
www.transfer-arch.com

https://es.pinterest.com/transferarch/monograph-02-island/

27. Global Selection. Transfer Global Architecture Platform. Monograph 02: Islands. Madeira (Portugal), Formentera (Spain), Iceland, Capri Casa Malaparte (Italy), Hong-Kong: Petri dish islands (China), Dubrovnik (Croacia)



Transfer-Global Architecture Platform. Monograph 02. 
Global Selection: Transfer-Global Architecture Platform. Monograph 2: ISLANDS
Our Blog on World Development includes links to selected Blogs and Webs related with quality photos, initiatives, and information of great interest for international cooperation to increase the quality of culture, education, social organization and economic development. 

In this entry we post a link to the Global Architecture Platforform Monograph 02, with articles and beautiful photographs, by prestigous architects on ISLANDS: Interesting contents about Madeira (Portugal), Formentera (Spain), Iceland, Capri casa Malaparte (Italy) and other ones. This is the index of contents:

Editorial by Josep Lluis Mateo
Posted 24.Feb.2016 937 views 

  
Profile Paulo David by Paulo David
Madeira (Portugal)
Posted 28.Jul.2016 1316 views 

 Profile Marià Castelló by Marià Castelló
Formentera (Spain)
 Posted 28.Jul.2016 728 views 

Iceland: Profile Manfreð Vilhjálmsson  by Halldóra Arnardóttir
 Posted 28.Jul.2016 1379 views

Found Paper  Capri (Italy). Documents on Casa Malaparte by Curzio Malaparte, 
Author:Jean-Luc Godard
 Posted 28.Jul.2016 695 views 

China: Hong-Kong Petri dish Islands (China) by Caroline Wüthrich
http://www.transfer-arch.com/reference/hong-kong-petri-dish-islands/
Posted 28.Jul.2016 284 views 

http://www.transfer-arch.com/reference/hong-kong-petri-dish-islands/

Croacia: Dobrović In Dubrovnik 1930-1940.
http://www.transfer-arch.com/reference/dobrovic/
Author:s
Krunoslav Ivanišin  Posted 24.Feb.2016 948 views

Wolfgang Thaler. Posted 28.Jul.2016

ABOUT TRANSFER

TRANSFER Global Architecture Platform, is a new independent digital editorial project based on the production and transmission of original architectural knowledge with the aim of connecting contemporary ideas and practices to broad the global culture of architecture.







Based in Zurich, TRANSFER is edited by a team with extensive experience in research and architectural edition, and relies on an outstanding network of collaborators worldwide.
Editor: Josep Lluís Mateo .Professor Dr. em. Architecture and Design, ETH Zürich. 
Managing Editor: Isabel Concheiro Dipl. Arch. ETSAB  SIA Scientific assistant ETHZ-EPFL (08-14)
More information at: http://www.transfer-arch.com/about/
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS "MONOGRAPH 02 ISLANDS",  AT THE TRANSFER WEBSITE, INSTAGRAM AND PINTEREST:



            Photo at Monograph 02: Das Salinas promenade © FG + SG - Fernando Guerra, Sérgio Guerra.
      Article: http://www.transfer-arch.com/monograph/paulo-david/

26. Global Selection. Transfer Global Architecture Platform. Mongraph 01. Deserts: Burkina Faso, Atacama in Chile, Mojave in USA



Transfer-Globla Architecture Platform. Monograph 01: Desert

Global Selection: Architecture 1.
Transfer-Global Architecture Platform. Monograph 01: Desert
Our Blog on World Development includes links to selected Blogs and Webs related with quality photos, initiatives, and information of great interest for international cooperation to increase the quality of culture, education, social organization and economic development. 
In this entry we post a link to the Global Architecture Platform, which includes an interesting Monograph 1, with articles and beautiful photographs, by prestigous architects on DESERTS: Interesting contents about Burkina Faso, Chile (Atacama desert), United States (Mojave desert), as well as other interesting articles.


Monograph 1. Desert. Posted 24-Feb.2016. Josep Lluis Mateo,

Profile Albert Faus by Albert Faus
Burkina Faso
Posted  24.Feb.2016 1530 views 

Profile Germán del Sol by Germán del Sol

Atacama: Chile

Posted
24.Feb.2016 537 views 


Found Paper Scenes in America Deserta by Reyner Banham
Mojave USA
Posted
24.Mar.2016 470 views 


Idea On the Sublime by Krunoslav Ivanišin
Posted
24.Feb.2016 987 views 

ABOUT TRANSFER

TRANSFER Global Architecture Platform, is a new independent digital editorial project based on the production and transmission of original architectural knowledge with the aim of connecting contemporary ideas and practices to broad the global culture of architecture.






Based in Zurich, TRANSFER is edited by a team with extensive experience in research and architectural edition, and relies on an outstanding network of collaborators worldwide.
Editor: Josep Lluís Mateo .Professor Dr. em. Architecture and Design, ETH Zürich. 
Managing Editor: Isabel Concheiro Dipl. Arch. ETSAB  SIA Scientific assistant ETHZ-EPFL (08-14)
More information at: http://www.transfer-arch.com/about/
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS "MONOGRAPH 01 DESERTS",  AT THE TRANSFER WEBSITE, INSTAGRAM AND AT PINTEREST:

http://www.transfer-arch.com/monograph/desert/
http://www.transfer-arch.com/monograph/



https://es.pinterest.com/transferarch/monograph-01-desert/

Note:  the counter of views of each article was taken from Global Architecture Platform: Transfer-Arch when posting this entry around 8th April of 2017. Updated counter appears at the articles links.